Why Pest Control ?
What are Pests ?
Pests are organisms that play against the interest of mans, either directly causing harm or indirectely being the miserces suffered by him. They may be insects, fungus, rodents, reptiles, acarinds or any other living being.
Why Pests should be Controlled ?
Pests either cause injury and sufferings or may be a nuisance. Indirectly they transmit many dreaded diseases like malariya, dengue, plaque, cause many alergic reactions etc. Besides few of them damage their valuable possessions like the books, cloths, household furniture, fittings etc. They also contaminate food items.
Why Pest Control is a specialised Job?
For pest management several means are available in the armaments of a pest controller. The professionalism exist in choosing them and correct use of a mean that contain them. The ecosystem that surround us is not a simple one it connect us with our surroundings. Disruption of the ecosystem may lead to a problem that is more dreaded than the one existed before. Further pest control, presently depends on toxic chemicals. Indiscriminate use of them may lead to hazards and further problems. Sustenance of the environment is the need of present day. Therefore, pest control, unless taken up by a man who has through knowledge of the pest and the means that is available to him for its effective management, will either end up in an incomplete act or lead to another more potent problem.
Although mosquito-borne diseases are common in many parts of the
world, Malaria is the only human infection known to have been
transmitted by mosquitoes in this country. Due to improved housing
and related environmental factors, the malarial mosquito,
Anopheles atroparvus now frequents cattle sheds and stables,
seldom feeding on human blood and the possibility of locally
transmitted malaria is now extremely remove.
The British climate is not suited to the transmission of tropical
diseases such as filaria, yellow fever and dengue. Some
mosquito-borne viruses causing low fevers occur in Southern and
Central Europe, but none have been detected in this country. British
mosquitoes have a nuisance value and, in some cases, cause severe
skin eruption and localised pain. Nevertheless, severe
infestations can cause much distress and are a valid reason for
Attempts to eradicate mosquitoes can be extremely expensive and
invariably fail. Nevertheless, the more modest and realistic aim
of mosquito control can, if the scheme is properly planned and
operated, reduce even severe biting problems to acceptable levels.
Despite their evening biting habit, Aedes detritus does not
normally rest in buildings, making adult control impractical and
necessitating intervention in the larval sites. Larval control can
be achieved by eliminating or altering the characteristics of the
larval sites or by attacking the larvae. The former method can
only be done piece meal over a period of years. The only
environmentally acceptable method of attacking larvae is by the
application to the larval sites of formulations of Bacillus
thurengiencis Serotype H14 (Bti). Bti is not the causal organism
of a disease which spreads through a mosquito population, but
produces a crystal which, when ingested by a mosquito larva,
breaks down into a stomach poison. Bti affects only the Dipteran
family Nematocara, to which mosquitoes belong. Other serotypes
affect different families of insects and have been used for the
protection of glass house crops. Both source reduction and larval
control are used or proposed for future operations undertaken by
the Dover District Council.
Land owners and gardeners can take preventative measures against
larvae by removing habitat. Cesspools, septic tanks and drains
must be sealed. All rainwater butts and tanks should have
close-fitting lids. Garden ponds stocked with fish will not
require treatment, but dis-used ponds and other areas of stagnant
water should be drained and kept empty. Adult mosquitoes may be
killed in gardens by the use of either pyrethrum or synthetic
pyrethroids. In addition to Mosquito control operations, a number
of measures can be taken for personal protection from mosquito
bites. These fall into the following categories:
Insectidal Aerosols Containing Pyrethroid Insecticides
These quickly and effectively clear a room of insects, but do not
prevent subsequent entrance of mosquitoes.
Vapourising Mats and Mosquito Coils
A small electric hotplate on which is placed a vaporising mat
containing a pyrethroid insecticide will give up to ten hours
protection inside a room. The insecticide evaporates at the
temperature of the hotplate which can be supplied to run off mains
electricity or off a 12v battery. A non-electric model filled with
alcohol, but without flame, is available for tents or
outbuildings. Coils which smoulder and emit a pyrethroid smoke are
cheaper than, but not as effective as, mats. Some people complain
that the smoke causes headaches.
Nets or Curtains Impregnated with Pyrethroid
Whilst a demand for nets is not foreseen, it may be of interest to
know that, as well as being insecticidal, pyrethroid impregnated
afford added protection. These pyrethroids are insect irritants
and mosquitoes will not try to pass through a mesh almost large
enough to fly through. Impregnated curtains are reported to
inhibit entry of mosquitoes into rooms.
Chemical repellents afford almost the only real protection
against outdoor biting mosquitoes. Lotion, roll-on stick, cream
aerosol and soap formulations are available from pharmacists. Di-ethyl
toluamide (DEET) is the active ingredient of most, though some may
contain di-methyl phthalate (DMP), ethy hexanedion, or citronella.
Some people find them unpleasant and care should be taken to avoid
eyes and lips. Repellents are not long lasting on the skin.
Because of these drawbacks, it may be preferable to impregnate a
cotton garment with a repellent chemical. DEET impregnated
netting, jackets, socks and sheets will remain effective for
weeks, especially if kept in a plastic bag when not in use.
Impregnation of a garment weighing 120gms requires 30mls (= ½
pint) of water. The resulting milky liquid is poured over the
garment, which is allowed to dry and then stored in an air-tight
container until required. For garments of different weights, the
quantities of DEET and water are changed accordingly. Pure DEET is
obtainable from the Medical Advisory Service for Travelers Abroad,
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street,
London WC1E 7HT.
Occupants of houses subject to regular invasion by mosquitoes can
derive benefit by the installation of a special fly screen in the
form of a blind set into a frame attached to the house window
frame with runners at each side to hold the cloth netting when in
use. Permanent metal fly screens are also available, but as the
mesh must be fine to keep out the insect, the loss of visibility
rules out this method in most domestic situations.
UltraLTra-Violet Lights with Electronic Grids
These are less effective against mosquitoes than against flies.
Electronic buzzers are widely advertised for protection against
mosquitoes, but have been shown to be totally ineffective. Some
brands have been withdrawn after prosecution under the Trades
Treatment for Insect Bites
Should you or your family receive mosquito bites, lesions may be
treated by the application of an anti-histamine cream obtainable
from chemists shops. In severe cases, particularly involving
babies or young children, a general practitioner should be
consulted as treatment for Anaphylactic shock may be needed.
Wasps are probably the most familiar and generally disliked of all
British insects. Their bodies bear the characteristic black and
yellow bands and they have a narrow waist in the middle of the
body. The worker is 10-15mm in length and the queen is usually
20mm in length, both have two pairs of wings which lock together.
Only females have the ability to sting, which is near the tip of
Several species of wasp exist in the UK but most abundant are the
Common and German wasps. Both these species nest underground or in
the cavities of trees, walls and other parts of buildings.
Wasps can be a nuisance but are not responsible for the spread of
disease. Whilst they are generally disliked because of their
sting, this will only be used by most species when the wasp is
aroused or frightened. Wasps are known to cause serious damage to
ripened fruit and are generally a nuisance when attracted to sweet
smelling foods. The benefits from wasps are not, however, so
widely appreciated for in the spring and early summer wasp grubs
are fed on other inspect pests.
The queen emerges from the nest in the autumn and after mating
selects a suitable site for hibernation. Late in the following
spring hibernation comes to an end and the surviving queens select
a nest site. The nest is usually located in the ground or in roof
cavities and is built from wood pulp which is moulded into the
outer shell of the nest and contains many internal chambers. The
queen lays an egg into each of the chambers and these hatch into
larvae which are fed by the queen on dead insects. When fully
grown the larvae pupate and from the pupae sterile workers emerge.
These workers assist in rearing new larvae and the new queens.
Towards the end of the summer the queen lays a number of eggs
which produce male wasps and these mate with the new queens. As
the weather becomes colder in late autumn, all the wasps die
except the new queens which fly away to find sites for
hibernation. The old nests are not re-used the following year.
Only wasps nests which pose a particular danger to your family or
other members of the public should be treated, otherwise they
should be left undisturbed. It is possible for householders to
treat nests providing that care is taken. Proprietary
insecticides, usually in a squeeze type container can be purchased
from garden centres or hardware stores.
However, if you should need professional help our Pest Control
operatives can treat the nest with an approved insecticide. A
single treatment will normally be all that is needed.
Our Pest Control Technicians will also be pleased to give advice
on the safety of animals where pesticides / rodenticides have been